Democracy And Education



Education as a Necessity of Life


Renewal of Life by Transmission. The most notable distinction between living and inanimate things is that the former maintain themselves by renewal. A stone when struck resists. If its resistance is greater than the force of the blow struck, it remains outwardly unchanged. Otherwise, it is shattered into smaller bits. Never does the stone attempt to react in such a way that it may maintain itself against the blow, much less so as to render the blow a contributing factor to its own continued action. While the living thing may easily be crushed by superior force, it none the less tries to turn the energies which act upon it into means of its own further existence. If it cannot do so, it does not just split into smaller pieces (at least in the higher forms of life), but loses its identity as a living thing.

As long as it endures, it struggles to use surrounding energies in its own behalf. It uses light, air, moisture, and the material of soil. To say that it uses them is to say that it turns them into means of its own conservation. As long as it is growing, the energy it expends in thus turning the environment to account is more than compensated for by the return it gets: it grows. Understanding the word "control" in this sense, it may be said that a living being is one that subjugates and controls for its own continued activity the energies that would otherwise use it up. Life is a self-renewing process through action upon the environment.

[01] After a While They Succumb
Democracy And Education
01 After a While They Succumb
02 We Employ The Word Experience In The Same Pregnant Sense
03 And Feeling From The Older To The Younger
04 Education And Communication.
05 What Constitutes a Community?
06 Not Only Is Social Life Identical With Communication
07 But The Very Process Of Living Together Educates
08 The Place Of Formal Education.
09 But In Dealing With The Young
10 But As Civilization Advances
11 It Is Far From Translation Into Familiar Acts And Objects
12 The Very Nature Of Life To Strive To Continue In Being.
13 Education As a Social Function
14 The Characteristic Activities Of a Living Being
15 The Social Environment And Education.
16 By Creating a Certain Environment In Other Words
17 An Immature Human Being Is Simply Played Upon To Secure Habits
18 If We Formulate The Principle Involved In This Illustration
19 The Importance Of Language In Gaining Knowledge
20 The Baby Begins Of Course With Mere Sounds
21 Precisely As The Things For Which They Stand Are Combined
22 The Social Medium As Educative
23 The Bulk Of The Vocabulary
24 The School As a Special Environment
25 As Compared With Ordinary Associations Of Life
26 And To Come Into Living Contact With a Broader Environment
27 The Diversity Of Groups Was Largely a Geographical Matter
28 The Development Within The Young Of The Attitudes And
29 Education As Direction. The Environment As Directive.
30 Every Stimulus Directs Activity
31 Direction Is Both Simultaneous And Successive
32 It May Accomplish Its Immediate Effect
33 Modes Of Social Direction.
34 If a Person Cannot Foresee The Consequences Of His Act
35 And On The Other Hand For An Exaggeration
36 If The Mother Hands The Child Something Needed
37 A Noise May Make Me Jump Without My Mind Being Implicated
38 It Will Be Recalled That Our Main Proposition Had Two Sides
39 A Child Sees Persons With Whom He Lives Using Chairs
40 Imitation And Social Psychology
41 Social Control Of Individuals Rests Upon The Tendency Of Imitate The Others.
42 Suppose That Some One Rolls a Ball To a Child
43 A Way Of Understanding Objects
44 Stimuli Conducive To Economical And Effective Response
45 Intentional Education Signifies
46 The Natural Or Native Impulses Of The Young do Not Agree With
47 Education As Growth. The Conditions Of Growth.
48 Immaturity Designates a Positive Force Or Ability
49 The Thoroughgoing Character Of This Helplessness Suggests
50 From a Social Standpoint
51 It Stimulated Foresight And Planning For The Future
52 Habits As Expressions Of Growth.
53 The Definition Expresses An Essential Phase Of Growth
54 Consider Getting Used To a Strange City
55 The Significance Of Habit Is Not Exhausted
56 Habits Reduce Themselves To Routine Ways Of Acting
57 The Educational Bearings Of The Conception Of Development
58 Three Ideas Which Have Been Criticized
59 Power To Grow Depends Upon Need For Others And Plasticity.
60 Preparation, Unfolding, And Formal Discipline
61 Something Must Be Hitched On To It To Make It Work
62 Development Is Conceived Not As Continuous Growing
63 Since The Goal Of Perfection
64 The Perfect Or Complete Ideal Is Not a Mere Ideal
65 A Remote Goal Of Complete Unfoldedness Is
66 Evolution Was a Force Working Itself Out To Its Own End
67 Education As Training Of Faculties
68 Which Are Then Shaped By Exercise Upon Material Presented
69 All Except Those Which Are Specifically Adapted To Reaching
70 Taking The Sequence Of Activities Into Account
71 But The Skill Is Limited To That Act
72 The Conception That The Result Of The Educative Process Is
73 Education As Conservative And Progressive
74 The Concrete Character Of Mind Consists
75 He Brought It Into The Sphere Of Conscious Method
76 Education As Recapitulation And Retrospection
77 In This Detailed And Consistent Form
78 And Many Of Them Conflicting With One Another
79 Is The Function Of Educational Subject Matter
80 And Of The Formation From Without
81 To Say That One Knows What He Is About
82 The Idea Of Education As Continuous Reconstruction
83 Education May Be Conceived Either Retrospectively Or Prospectively.
84 The Democratic Conception In Education
85 They Have Both a Eulogistic Or Normative Sense
86 Must Call Some Of Their Powers Into Play
87 Stimulation And Response Are Exceedingly One-sided
88 The Two Elements In Our Criterion Both Point To Democracy
89 The Widening Of The Area Of Shared Concerns
90 The Platonic Educational Philosophy.
91 The Individualistic Ideal Of The Eighteenth Century.
92 Education As National And As Social.
93 Since Education Is a Social Process, And There Are Many Kinds
94 Aims In Education. The Nature Of An Aim.
95 Instead Of Being Furnished From Without
96 The More Adequate Our Observations
97 We Forget That It Comes From The Adjective Conscious
98 The Criteria Of Good Aims.
99 This Impression Must Now Be Qualified
100 The Aim Must Always Represent a Freeing Of Activities
101 Applications In Education.
102 Not An Abstract Idea Like Education
103 An Aim Must Be Capable Of Translation Into a Method
104 General In Its Ramified Connections
105 An Aim Denotes The Result Of Any Natural Process Brought To
106 Natural Development And Social Efficiency As Aims
107 At Different Times Such Aims As Complete Living
108 Educational Reformers
109 We Receive From Three Sources Nature
110 Introducing a Much-needed Reform Into Education
111 Are Responsible For Many Avoidable Ills
112 Children Are Always In Motion
113 The Aim Of Following Nature Means To Note The Origin
114 As a Protest Against This View
115 Social Efficiency As Aim.
116 Grave Danger That In Insisting Upon This End
117 Civic Efficiency, Or Good Citizenship.
118 Culture As Aim.
119 The Aim Of Efficiency Like Any Educational Aim.
120 General Or Comprehensive Aims Are Points Of View For Surveying
121 Interest And Discipline
122 They Are Literally Bound Up With These Changes
123 The Point Where It Influences Him
124 It Is To Discover Objects And Modes Of Action
125 To Be Means For The Achieving Of Present Tendencies
126 Obstinacy Is Persistence But It Is Not Strength Of Volition.
127 Such a Thing As a Speculative Tracing Out Of Results
128 The Importance Of The Idea Of Interest In Education.
129 Mind Is Not Concerned With The Physical Manipulation Of The Instruments.
130 In Historic Practice The Error Has Cut Two Ways.
131 Some Social Aspects Of The Question.
132 Explains Many Things In Our Historic Educational Traditions.
133 Interest And Discipline Are Correlative Aspects Of Activity.
134 Experience And Thinking. The Nature Of Experience.
135 Two Conclusions Important For Education Follow
136 Callous Indifference And Explosions From Strain Alternate
137 But As External Inlets And Outlets Of Mind
138 On The Intellectual Side
139 Come To Take The Place Of Ideas
140 Reflection In Experience.
141 Hence The Quality Of The Experience Changes
142 The Starting Point Of Any Process Of Thinking Is
143 Where There Is Reflection There Is Suspense
144 So Much For The General Features Of a Reflective Experience
145 In Determining The Place Of Thinking In Experience
146 Thinking In Education. The Essentials Of Method.
147 This Remark May Sound Like a Silly Truism
148 Hence The First Approach To Any Subject In School
149 The Putting Of Questions. School Methods.
150 The Pupil S Problems Are Not His
151 The Material Of Thinking Is Not Thoughts
152 In The Sense Of Information
153 It Involves Some Inventiveness
154 The Need Of Application Of Ideas
155 If We Have Dwelt Especially On The Negative Side
156 Processes Of Instruction Are Unified In The Degree In Which
157 The Nature Of Method. The Unity Of Subject Matter And Method.
158 The Notion Of Any Such Split Is Radically False
159 An Illustration May Give It Content
160 When We Reflect Upon An Experience Instead Of Just Having It
161 Would Constitute The Method Or Way Or Manner Of Its Growth
162 Method As General And As Individual.
163 The Traits Of Individual Method.
164 Open-mindedness. An Accompaniment Of The Existence Of Interest.
165 Single-mindedness. Intellectual Integrity, Honesty, And Sincerity.
166 School Conditions Favorable To This Division Of Mind.
167 Responsibility.
168 Method Is a Statement Of The Way The Subject Matter Of An
169 Subject Matter Of Educator And Of Learner.
170 As The Social Group Grows More Complex
171 The Significance Of a Knowledge Of Subject Matter
172 From The Standpoint Of The Educator
173 The Development Of Subject Matter In The Learner
174 A Large Fund Of Social Knowledge Accrues
175 Information Is The Name Usually Given To This Kind Of Subject Matter.
176 The Nature Of Knowledge Itself.
177 To Be Informed Is To Be Posted
178 Science Or Rationalized Knowledge.
179 We Have Already Dwelt Upon The Fact That Subject Matter
180 Science Is Organized Or Systematized Knowledge.
181 Subject Matter As Social. School Activities And Studies.
182 The Subject Matter Of Education Consists Primarily Of
183 Play And Work In The Curriculum
184 Books And Everything Concerned With Them Were
185 Available Occupations. List Of Activities.
186 The Fear Of Raw Material Is Shown In Laboratory
187 Wholes For Purposes Of Education
188 For The Person Approaching a Subject
189 They Tap Instincts At a Deep Level
190 The Illustration Is Intended To Apply
191 Mathematics Is Now a Highly Abstract Science
192 The Difference Between Them Is Largely One Of Time-span
193 They Are Trying To do Or Effect Something
194 The Demand For Continuous Attention Is Greater
195 Learning How To do Things Of a Fairly Direct Sort.
196 The Significance Of Geography And History
197 The Meanings With Which Activities Become Charged
198 Curiosity Is Not An Accidental Isolated Possession
199 The Complementary Nature Of History And Geography
200 These Are Only Emphases In a Common Topic
201 The Same Principle Coordinates Branches
202 History And Present Social Life
203 We do Not Have a Study Of History
204 Economic History Is More Human
205 Historical Knowledge Helps Provide Such Insight
206 It Is The Nature Of An Experience To Have Implications Which
207 Science In The Course Of Study
208 This Perfected Form Is a Stumbling Block
209 What The Pupil Learns He At Least Understands
210 To Secure a Place For Science In Education
211 The Question Arises As To Its Place In Experience
212 Rather Than Modified The Quality Of Human Purposes
213 But Rather Crude And Unrational
214 The Term Abstract Has a Rather Bad Name In Popular Speech
215 Generalization Is The Counterpart Of Abstraction
216 Science Represents The Office Of Intelligence
217 Naturalism And Humanism In Education.
218 Science Represents The Fruition Of The Cognitive Factors In
219 Educational Values
220 Formal Education Is Peculiarly Exposed To This Danger
221 The First And Basic Function Of Laboratory Work
222 The Nature Of Standards Of Valuation
223 Probably Few Would Deny This Statement As To Musical Taste
224 Appreciative Realizations Are To Be Distinguished From Symbolic
225 In Accord With Many Tendencies In Contemporary Education
226 Literature And The Fine Arts In The Course Of Study.
227 Appreciation Is Opposed To Depreciation
228 The Valuation Of Studies. To Value Means Primarily To Prize.
229 Treat Them As Means To Something Beyond Themselves
230 It Requires Constant Inspection
231 Conscious Reference To Results Is Indicated
232 And That The Curriculum Should
233 Mathematics Is Said To Have
234 The Obvious Outcome Is Congestion Of The Course Of Study
235 Social Intercourse Is Social Intercourse
236 The Elements Involved In a Discussion Of Value
237 Labor And Leisure. The Origin Of The Opposition.
238 It Would Rather Lead To Scrupulous Care For Them
239 Vegetative And Animal Functions Dominate
240 In Order That One May Live Worthily He Must First Live
241 For There Is a Distinction In Ends And In Free Action
242 Aristotle. Art Or Study Deserves To Be Called Mechanical If
243 In The Inherited Situation
244 If We Had Less Compromise And Resulting Confusion
245 They May Release The Mind For Thought Upon Other Topics
246 Of The Segregations Of Educational Values Discussed In The
247 Intellectual And Practical Studies
248 In a Search For Something To Replace Them
249 This Means That The Bodily Organs
250 The Senses Are Connected With The Appetites
251 For The Senses And Sense Observation
252 It Ceased To Mean Ways Of Doing And Being Done To
253 Education As Method Of Social Reform.
254 The Philosophy Was Weak Upon The Positive Side
255 It Also Has The Disadvantage Of Being Limited In Range
256 Or Rationalistic Studies
257 Experience As Experimentation.
258 Ceases To Be Blinded By Impulse Or Custom
259 The Initiative In Activity Is On The Side Of The Environment
260 But Now That Even The Occupations Of The Household
261 The Greeks Were Induced To Philosophize By The Increasing
262 Physical And Social Studies Naturalism And Humanism
263 The Historic Background Of Humanistic Study.
264 Aristotle Goes Even Farther
265 In Falling Back Upon The Recorded Ideas Of The Greeks
266 The Full Scope Of This Fact Escapes Us
267 Life Found Its Support In Authority
268 The Modern Scientific Interest In Nature.
269 Division Made Between Language And Literature And The Physical Sciences.
270 The Protestant Revolt.
271 Adopting The Methods Of Observation And Experimentation
272 The Philosophy Which Professed Itself Based Upon Science
273 It Takes The Technique For The Thing Itself
274 The Present Educational Problem
275 And To Teach Humanistic Studies As Isolated Subjects
276 Is Easier Today Than It Ever Was Before
277 Identical In Its Deepest Meaning With a Moral Interest
278 Such a Tradition As To Culture Is
279 The Philosophic Dualism Between Man And Nature Is Reflected In
280 The Individual And The World
281 In The Medieval Period There Was a Religious Individualism
282 The Identification Of Mind With The Self
283 Individual Mind As The Agent Of Reorganization
284 A Just Philosophic Interpretation Of These Movements Would
285 Or Reconstruction Of Accepted Beliefs
286 Intrinsically Independent Of The Ideas
287 Since It Deals Wholly With General And Impersonal Forms
288 Especially Penal Administration
289 And Between Freedom And Social Control
290 But Because These Are The Mental Phase Of Behavior
291 The Phrase Think For One S Self Is a Pleonasm
292 Activity Is Defined Or Specialized In Certain Channels
293 True Individualism Is a Product Of The Relaxation Of The Grip
294 The Meaning Of Vocation. Vocational Aspects Of Education.
295 One And Only One To Each Person
296 In The Humane Sense Of Efficiency
297 With Reference To Other Members Of a Community
298 An Occupation Is a Continuous Activity Having a Purpose
299 Applies In Full Force To The Vocational Phases Of Education
300 One Has Discovered In Himself
301 Present Opportunities And Dangers
302 Especially In The Most Advanced Work
303 Vocations Importance
304 The Pursuit Of Knowledge Has Become More Experimental.
305 More Full Of Immediate Meaning
306 Apart From a Change In Industrial And Political Conditions
307 Taking Its Stand Upon a Dogma Of Social Predestination
308 Those Who Are In a Position To Make Their Wishes Good
309 A Vocation Signifies Any Form Of Continuous Activity
310 Philosophy Of Education
311 Based Upon The Democratic Criterion
312 The Nature Of Philosophy.
313 The Need For Philosophy Is Not Perceptible
314 But Where a System Becomes Influential
315 The Earlier History Of Philosophy
316 As Matters Of Philosophy As An Independent Branch Of Inquiry
317 After a Review Designed To Bring Out The Philosophic Issues
318 Theories Of Knowledge. Continuity Versus Dualism.
319 Lacking In Cultural Significance
320 The Emotions Are Conceived To Be Purely Private And Personal
321 The Development Of Biology Clinches This Lesson
322 The Experimental Method Has Two Sides
323 The Experimental Method Is New As a Scientific Resource
324 Schools Of Method. Some Of Them Are Named Scholasticism.
325 Knowledge Is. To Take An Extreme Example.
326 What Cannot Be Managed Directly May Be Handled Indirectly
327 There Is Nothing Which Makes It Knowledge To The Pupils
328 So Far As a Situation Is Confused
329 Such Social Divisions As Interfere With Free And Full
330 Theories Of Morals. The Inner And The Outer.
331 There Is Not First a Purely Psychical Process
332 Their Own Imaginings And Wishes
333 The Purely Internal Morality Of Meaning Well
334 One Or Both Of These Evils Must Result Wherever Individuals
335 The Opposition Of Duty And Interest.
336 If The Self Is Something Fixed Antecedent To Action
337 Unselfishness
338 No Matter How Efficient In The Past
339 It Is Interest In The Occupation As a Whole That Is
340 Intelligence And Character.
341 Socratic-platonic Teaching
342 To Dispute About The Proper Meaning Of The Term Knowledge
343 To The Enlargement Of Meaning Found In Geography And History
344 The Social And The Moral.
345 The Moral And The Social Quality Of Conduct Are
346 There Should Be a Free Interplay Between The Two
347 The Most Important Problem Of Moral Education In The School
348 Transcriber's Note
349 Copyright
350 Safety Warning
351 How To Cite Our Website

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